Reproductive and menopausal factors and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in women

28 Mar 2007Karen H. Costenbader, Diane Feskanich, Meir J. Stampfer, Elizabeth W. Karlson

Early age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, early age at menopause, surgical menopause, and postmenopausal use of hormones were each associated with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE.

Meta Analysis
3 effects
238308 subjects

Reported Outcomes

DeterminantsOutcomeDetails

Hormone Replacement Therapy Manufactured risk & protective factor
Risk Factor Hormone Replacement Th...
Manufactured

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome
Increased risk of Lupus (Systemic lupus...
Lymphatic system

High evidence
90.0%

Contraceptive pills Manufactured risk & protective factor
Risk Factor Contraceptive pills
Manufactured

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome
Increased risk of Lupus (Systemic lupus...
Lymphatic system

High evidence
50.0%

Early Menarche Reproductive outcome
Early Menarche
Reproductive system

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome
Increased risk of Lupus (Systemic lupus...
Lymphatic system

High evidence
110.0%