Cigarette smoking and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A meta-analysis

22 Mar 2004Karen H. Costenbader, Daniel J. Kim, Jehanna Peerzada, Shahin Lockman, Dolores Nobles-Knight, Michelle Petri, Elizabeth W. Karlson

studies revealed a small but statistically significant association between current smoking and development of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE

Meta Analysis
1 effect
166391 subjects

Reported Outcomes


Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Risk Factor Smoking

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome
Increased risk of Lupus (Systemic lupus...
Lymphatic system

High evidence