Association of Long-term, Low-Intensity Smoking With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in the National Institutes of Health–AARP Diet and Health Study

02 Jan 2017Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS; Linda M. Liao, PhD, MPH; Carolyn Reyes-Guzman, PhD, MPH; et al

This study provides evidence that individuals with lifelong, low-intensity smoking have higher mortality risks than those who never smoked and would benefit from cessation.

Cohort Study
2 effects
1 year
290215 subjects

Reported Outcomes


Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Risk Factor Smoking

Mortality Musculoskeletal outcome
Increased risk of Mortality
Musculoskeletal system

High evidence

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Strong Risk Factor Smoking

Lung cancer Respiratory outcome
Strong increased risk of Lung cancer
Respiratory system

High evidence