Smoking as a Risk Factor for Dementia and Cognitive Decline: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

14 Jun 2007Kaarin J. Anstey, Chwee von Sanden, Agus Salim and Richard O'Kearne

Findings showed that elderly smokers have increased risks of dementia and cognitive decline.

Meta Analysis
4 effects
7 years
43397 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Cognitive deficit Brain outcome
Minor increase risk of Cognitive deficit
Brain system

High evidence
7.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Alzheimer's disease Brain outcome
Increased risk of Alzheimer's disease
Brain system

High evidence
70.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Cognitive Activity Brain outcome
Minor decreased risk of Cognitive Activity
Brain system

High evidence
-13.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Dementia Brain outcome
Increased risk of Dementia
Brain system

High evidence
27.0%