Whole grain consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all cause and cause speci c mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective studies

27 Jun 2016Dag nn Aune, NaNa Keum, Edward Giovannucci, Lars T Fadnes, Paolo Bo etta, Darren C Greenwood, Serena Tonstad, Lars J Vatten, Elio Riboli, Teresa Norat

Analysis provides further evidence that whole grain intake is associated with a reduced risk of coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and total cancer, and mortality from all causes, respiratory diseases, infectious diseases, diabetes, and all non-cardiovascular, non-cancer causes

Meta Analysis
7 effects
10 years
705253 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular outcome
Minor decreased risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular system

High evidence
-22.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Coronary Heart Disease (Ischaemic Heart Disease) Cardiovascular outcome
Minor decreased risk of Coronary Heart Diseas...
Cardiovascular system

High evidence
-19.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Mortality Musculoskeletal outcome
Minor decreased risk of Mortality
Musculoskeletal system

High evidence
-22.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Coronary Heart Disease (Ischaemic Heart Disease) Cardiovascular outcome
Minor increase risk of Coronary Heart Diseas...
Cardiovascular system

High evidence
16.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular outcome
Minor increase risk of Cardiovascular Disease
Cardiovascular system

High evidence
2.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Stroke Brain outcome
Minor decreased risk of Stroke
Brain system

High evidence
-5.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Stroke Brain outcome
Minor decreased risk of Stroke
Brain system

High evidence
-12.0%