Smoking is associated with renal impairment and proteinuria in the normal population: The AusDiab kidney study

14 Oct 2002Esther M. Briganti, MBBS, Pauline Branley, PhD, Steven J. Chadban, PhD, Jonathan E. Shaw, MD, John J. McNeil, PhD, Timothy A. Welborn, PhD, Robert C. Atkins, DSc

This study suggests that smoking may cause kidney damage, even in a healthy population

Cross-section study
1 effect
11247 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Kidney Damage (Proteinuria) Urinary outcome
Strong increased risk of Kidney Damage (Protei...
Urinary system

High evidence
360.0%