A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson's disease

29 May 2002Miguel A. Hernán MD, DrPH, Bahi Takkouche MD, PhD, Francisco Caamaño-Isorna PharmD, Juan J. Gestal-Otero MD, PhD

This meta-analysis shows that there is strong epidemiological evidence that smokers and coffee drinkers have a lower risk of Parkinson's disease.

Meta Analysis
2 effects
33 years
18605 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Parkinson's Disease Brain outcome
Decreased risk of Parkinson's Disease
Brain system

High evidence
-41.0%

Coffee (Caffeine) Beverage risk & protective factor

Parkinson's Disease Brain outcome
Decreased risk of Parkinson's Disease
Brain system

High evidence
-31.0%