Tobacco smoking and cancer: A meta-analysis

24 Sep 2007Sara Gandini, Edoardo Botteri, Simona Iodice, Mathieu Boniol, Albert B. Lowenfels, Patrick Maisonneuve, Peter Boyle

This comprehensive meta-analysis confirms much of the existing evidence linking smoking with well-known anatomic cancer sites such as the respiratory tract, upper digestive tract, urinary tract

Meta Analysis
5 effects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Colorectal Cancer Digestive outcome
Increased risk of Colorectal Cancer
Digestive system

High evidence
40.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Oral cavity and pharynx cancer Digestive outcome
Strong increased risk of Oral cavity and phary...
Digestive system

High evidence
343.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Oesophagus cancer Digestive outcome
Strong increased risk of Oesophagus cancer
Digestive system

High evidence
357.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Stomach cancer (Gastric cancer) Digestive outcome
Strong increased risk of Stomach cancer (Gastr...
Digestive system

High evidence
357.0%

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Pancreatic cancer Digestive outcome
Strong increased risk of Pancreatic cancer
Digestive system

High evidence
343.0%