Whole grain and refined grain consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and dose–response meta-analysis of cohort studies

25 Oct 2013Dagfinn AuneEmail author, Teresa Norat, Pål Romundstad, Lars J. Vatten

analysis suggests that a high whole grain intake, but not refined grains, is associated with reduced type 2 diabetes risk. However, a positive association with intake of white rice and inverse associations between several specific types of whole grains and type 2 diabetes warrant further investigation

Systematic review
2 effects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Type 2 Diabetes Lymphatic outcome
Decreased risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Lymphatic system

High evidence
-32.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Type 2 Diabetes Lymphatic outcome
Minor increase risk of Type 2 Diabetes
Lymphatic system

Moderate evidence
5.0%