Refined and whole grain cereals and the risk of oral, oesophageal and laryngeal cancer.

12 Jun 2000Levi F, Pasche C, Lucchini F, Chatenoud L, Jacobs DR Jr, La Vecchia C.

Present data indicate and further quantify that refined cereals are an unfavourable, but whole grain ones a favourable indicator of the risk of upper aerodigestive and respiratory tract neoplasms.

Case-control study
8 effects
156 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Stomach cancer (Gastric cancer) Digestive outcome
Increased risk of Stomach cancer (Gastr...
Digestive system

Moderate evidence
50.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Oral cavity and pharynx cancer Digestive outcome
Increased risk of Oral cavity and phary...
Digestive system

High evidence
60.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Thyroid cancer Endocrine outcome
Strong increased risk of Thyroid cancer
Endocrine system

Moderate evidence
200.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Oesophagus cancer Digestive outcome
Increased risk of Oesophagus cancer
Digestive system

Moderate evidence
60.0%

Refined grains Nutrition risk & protective factor

Colorectal Cancer Digestive outcome
Increased risk of Colorectal Cancer
Digestive system

Moderate evidence
40.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Oral cavity and pharynx cancer Digestive outcome
Decreased risk of Oral cavity and phary...
Digestive system

Moderate evidence
-40.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Oesophagus cancer Digestive outcome
Decreased risk of Oesophagus cancer
Digestive system

Moderate evidence
-70.0%

Whole grains Nutrition risk & protective factor
Whole grains
Nutrition

Larynx cancer Respiratory outcome
Decreased risk of Larynx cancer
Respiratory system

Moderate evidence
-30.0%