The long-term effects of exposure to low doses of lead in childhood: an 11-year follow-up report

11 Jun 1990HL Needleman, A Schell, D Bellinger

Exposure to lead in childhood is associated with deficits in central nervous system that persist in young adulthood

Cohort Study
5 effects
270 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Intelligence Brain outcome
Minor decreased risk of Intelligence
Brain system

Moderate evidence
-1.0%

Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Memory Brain outcome
Minor decreased risk of Memory
Brain system

Moderate evidence
-1.0%

Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Reaction time Nervous outcome
Minor decreased risk of Reaction time
Nervous system

High evidence
-3.0%

Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Cognitive deficit Brain outcome
Minor increase risk of Cognitive deficit
Brain system

High evidence
11.0%

Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Violent crime Brain outcome
Minor increase risk of Violent crime
Brain system

High evidence
3.0%