Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): Risk Factors, and Impact on Quality of Life—A Population-based Study

Eslick, Guy D. PhD, MMedSc (Clin Epi), MMedStat* †; Talley, Nicholas J. MD, PhD, FACG, FRCP, FRACP† ‡

Cardiac risk factors (high cholesterol and smoking) were independently associated with GERD.

Cohort Study
1 effect
1000 subjects

Reported Outcomes

CausesOutcomeCertainty

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Acid Reflux Digestive outcome
Minor increase risk of Acid Reflux
Digestive system

High evidence
11.0%