Reproductive and menopausal factors and risk of systemic lupus erythematosus in women

28 Mar 2007Karen H. Costenbader, Diane Feskanich, Meir J. Stampfer, Elizabeth W. Karlson

Early age at menarche, oral contraceptive use, early age at menopause, surgical menopause, and postmenopausal use of hormones were each associated with an increased risk of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE.

Meta Analysis
3 effects
238308 subjects

Reported Outcomes

VariablesOutcomeEffectLatency

Hormone Replacement Therapy Manufactured risk & protective factor
Hormone Repla...
Manufactured

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome

Strong Increase

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Contraceptive pills Manufactured risk & protective factor
Contraceptive...
Manufactured

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome

Strong Increase

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Early Menarche Reproductive outcome
Early Menarche
Reproductive

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome

Strong Increase

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