Cigarette smoking and the risk of systemic lupus erythematosus: A meta-analysis

22 Mar 2004Karen H. Costenbader, Daniel J. Kim, Jehanna Peerzada, Shahin Lockman, Dolores Nobles-Knight, Michelle Petri, Elizabeth W. Karlson

studies revealed a small but statistically significant association between current smoking and development of systemic lupus erythematosus SLE

Meta Analysis
1 effect
166391 subjects

Reported Outcomes

VariablesOutcomeEffectLatency

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome

Strong Increase

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