Association of Long-term, Low-Intensity Smoking With All-Cause and Cause-Specific Mortality in th...

02 Jan 2017Maki Inoue-Choi, PhD, MS; Linda M. Liao, PhD, MPH; Carolyn Reyes-Guzman, PhD, MPH; et al

This study provides evidence that individuals with lifelong, low-intensity smoking have higher mortality risks than those who never smoked and would benefit from cessation.

Cohort Study
2 effects
1 year
290215 subjects

Reported Outcomes

VariablesOutcomeEffectLatency

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Mortality Musculoskeletal outcome
Mortality
Musculoskeletal

Strong Increase

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Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Lung cancer Respiratory outcome
Lung cancer
Respiratory

Strong Increase

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