A meta-analysis of coffee drinking, cigarette smoking, and the risk of Parkinson's disease

29 May 2002Miguel A. Hernán MD, DrPH, Bahi Takkouche MD, PhD, Francisco Caamaño-Isorna PharmD, Juan J. Gestal-Otero MD, PhD

This meta-analysis shows that there is strong epidemiological evidence that smokers and coffee drinkers have a lower risk of Parkinson's disease.

Meta Analysis
2 effects
33 years
18605 subjects

Reported Outcomes

VariablesOutcomeEffectLatency

Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Parkinson's Disease Brain outcome

Strong Decrease

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Coffee (Caffeine) Beverage risk & protective factor

Parkinson's Disease Brain outcome

Strong Decrease

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