Respiratory outcome

Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. If left untreated, this growth can spread beyond the lung by the process of metastasis into nearby tissue or other parts of the body. Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas. The two main types are small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). The most common symptoms are coughing (including coughing up blood), weight loss, shortness of breath, and chest pains.

Respiratory
31 causes

Causes of Lung cancer : Reducing Your Risk

FactorsEffectEvidenceStudies

Saturated Fat Nutrition risk & protective factor
Saturated Fat
Nutrition

Minor Increase

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Alcohol Beverage risk & protective factor
Alcohol
Beverage

Notable Increase

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Mediterranean diet Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Decrease

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Red Meat Nutrition risk & protective factor
Red Meat
Nutrition

Strong Increase

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Smoking Contaminant risk & protective factor
Smoking
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Aspirin Manufactured risk & protective factor
Aspirin
Manufactured

Strong Decrease

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Olive oil Nutrition risk & protective factor
Olive oil
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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PM10 Outdoor Air Pollution Contaminant risk & protective factor
PM10 Outdoor ...
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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PM25 Outdoor Air Pollution Contaminant risk & protective factor
PM25 Outdoor ...
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Bitumen Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Bitumen Exposure
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Busy Road Traffic Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Busy Road Tra...
Contaminant

Notable Increase

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Cooking Oil Vapor Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Cooking Oil V...
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Coal Smoke Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Coal Smoke Ex...
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Soy Nutrition risk & protective factor
Soy
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Meat & Foods rich in Branched-Chain Amino Acids (BCAAs) Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Increase

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Sedentary Lifestyle Selfcare risk & protective factor

Strong Increase

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Radon exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Radon exposure
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Cruciferous vegetables Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Decrease

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Fried Foods Nutrition risk & protective factor
Fried Foods
Nutrition

Strong Increase

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Insulin-like Human Growth Hormone (IGF-1) Endocrine outcome

Notable Increase

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Height Musculoskeletal outcome
Height
Musculoskeletal

Notable Increase

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Lead Exposure Contaminant risk & protective factor
Lead Exposure
Contaminant

Strong Increase

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Coffee (Caffeine) Beverage risk & protective factor

Strong Increase

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Citrus (orange, mandarines, lemons, lime, tangerine, grapefruit)  Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Decrease

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Purple Sweet Potato Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Decrease

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Broccoli Nutrition risk & protective factor
Broccoli
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Cantaloupe Nutrition risk & protective factor
Cantaloupe
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Spinach Nutrition risk & protective factor
Spinach
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Carrots Nutrition risk & protective factor
Carrots
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Bell peppers Nutrition risk & protective factor
Bell peppers
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Kale Nutrition risk & protective factor
Kale
Nutrition

Strong Decrease

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Butternut squash Nutrition risk & protective factor

Strong Decrease

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Lung cancer outcomes

OutcomesEffectEvidenceReferences

Mortality Musculoskeletal outcome
Mortality
Musculoskeletal

Strong Increase

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Add Lung cancer