Maternity outcome

Gestational diabetes

Gestational diabetes also known as gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is when a woman without diabetes, develops high blood sugar levels during pregnancy. Gestational diabetes generally results in few symptoms; however, it does increase the risk of pre-eclampsia, depression, and requiring a Caesarean section. Babies born to mothers with poorly treated gestational diabetes are at increased risk of being too large, having low blood sugar after birth, and jaundice. If untreated, it can also result in a stillbirth. Long term, children are at higher risk of being overweight and developing type 2 diabetes.

Gestational diabetes is caused by not enough insulin in the setting of insulin resistance. Risk factors include being overweight, previously having gestational diabetes, a family history of type 2 diabetes, and having polycystic ovarian syndrome. Diagnosis is by blood tests. For those at normal risk screening is recommended between 24 and 28 weeks gestation. For those at high risk testing may occur at the first prenatal visit.

Prevention is by maintaining a healthy weight and exercising before pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is a treated with a diabetic diet, exercise, and possibly insulin injections. Most women are able to manage their blood sugar with a diet and exercise. Blood sugar testing among those who are affected is often recommended four times a day. Breastfeeding is recommended as soon as possible after birth

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