Nutrition cause

Refined grains

Refined grains, in contrast to whole grains, refers to grain products consisting of grains or grain flours that have been significantly modified from their natural composition. The modification process generally involves the mechanical removal of bran and germ, either through grinding or selective sifting.

Risk Factor
2 effects
Measured in g

Related to Refined grains

Refined grains Health Risks

OutcomesEffectEvidenceReferences

Oral cavity and pharynx cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Stomach cancer (Gastric cancer) Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

Thyroid cancer Endocrine outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

Oesophagus cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

Coronary Heart Disease (Ischaemic Heart Disease) Cardiovascular outcome
Coronary Heart ...
Cardiovascular

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular outcome
Cardiovascular ...
Cardiovascular

Notable Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Stroke Brain outcome
Stroke
Brain

Notable Decrease

Evidence: High

1 study

Insulin Resistance Lymphatic outcome

Minor Increase

Needs research

1 study

Type 2 Diabetes Lymphatic outcome

Notable Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

Colorectal Cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

Heart Attack (Myocardial infarction - ACS) Cardiovascular outcome
Heart Attack (M...
Cardiovascular

Strong Increase

Needs research

1 study

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