Contaminant cause

Chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBP...

Chlorinated disinfection agents such as chlorine and chloramine are strong oxidising agents introduced into water in order to destroy pathogenic microbes, to oxidise taste/odour-forming compounds, and to form a disinfectant residual so water can reach the consumer tap safe from microbial contamination. These disinfectants may react with naturally present fulvic and humic acids, amino acids, and other natural organic matter, as well as iodide and bromide ions, to produce a range of DBPs such as the trihalomethanes (THMs), haloacetic acids (HAAs), and chlorite (which are regulated in the US), and so-called "emerging" DBPs such as halonitromethanes, haloacetonitriles, haloamides, halofuranones, iodo-acids such as iodoacetic acid, iodo-THMs (iodotrihalomethanes), nitrosamines, and others.

Risk Factor
0 effects
Measured in mg

Caution

Chloramine has become a popular disinfectant in the US, and it has been found to produce N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA), which is a possible human carcinogen, as well as highly genotoxic iodinated DBPs, such as iodoacetic acid, when iodide is present in source waters.

Recommended Dosage

Unsafe for pregnant and infants - Use water filter

Chlorination disinfection byproducts (DBPs) - Water contaminant Health Risks

OutcomesEffectEvidenceReferences

Congenital Anomaly Maternity outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Bladder cancer Urinary outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Users