Contaminant cause

Smoking

Smoking is the practice of burning tobacco and inhaling the smoke (consisting of particle and gaseous phases). The practice was believed to begin as early as 5000–3000 BC.

Tobacco was introduced to Eurasia in the late 17th century where it followed common trade routes. The practice encountered criticism from its first import into the Western world onwards, but embedded itself in certain strata of a number of societies before becoming widespread upon the introduction of automated cigarette-rolling apparatus

Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer. Note: Dr. Bittoni et al. found that prospective data from NHANES III showed that among adults with a history of past or current smoking, ibuprofen intake was associated with a substantial (48 percent) reduction in the risk of dying from lung cancer. Effects of aspirin and acetaminophen were not statistically significant.

Risk Factor
0 effects
Measured in serving

Caution

Smoking significantly increases risk of lung cancer and all-cause mortality

Recommended Dosage

0 cigarettes per day

Related to Smoking

Smoking Health Risks

OutcomesEffectEvidenceReferences

Cardiovascular Disease Cardiovascular outcome
Cardiovascular ...
Cardiovascular

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Stroke Brain outcome
Stroke
Brain

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Acid Reflux Digestive outcome
Acid Reflux
Digestive

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Still Birth Maternity outcome
Still Birth
Maternity

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Congenital Anomaly Maternity outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) Respiratory outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Colorectal Cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Oral cavity and pharynx cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Oesophagus cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Stomach cancer (Gastric cancer) Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Pancreatic cancer Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Parkinson's Disease Brain outcome

Strong Decrease

Evidence: High

1 study

Kidney Damage (Proteinuria) Urinary outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Heart Attack (Myocardial infarction - ACS) Cardiovascular outcome
Heart Attack (M...
Cardiovascular

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Cognitive deficit Brain outcome

Notable Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Alzheimer's disease Brain outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Dementia Brain outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Lung cancer Respiratory outcome
Lung cancer
Respiratory

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Digestive outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Coronary Heart Disease (Ischaemic Heart Disease) Cardiovascular outcome
Coronary Heart ...
Cardiovascular

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

2 studies

Mortality Musculoskeletal outcome
Mortality
Musculoskeletal

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

3 studies

Low birth weight Maternity outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Cognitive Activity Brain outcome

Strong Decrease

Evidence: High

1 study

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) Nervous outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Suicide Brain outcome
Suicide
Brain

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Lupus (Systemic lupus erythematosus) Lymphatic outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Arthritis - Osteoarthritis Musculoskeletal outcome
Arthritis - Ost...
Musculoskeletal

Strong Increase

Evidence: High

1 study

Job Stress Brain outcome

Strong Increase

Evidence: Low

1 study

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